Free article, free chart: Five levels of awareness of honor-shame in cross-cultural ministry

H-S-1 to H-S-5.a
H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels of awareness of honor-shame in cross-cultural ministry

In April 2015, Evangelical Missions Quarterly (EMQ) published my article H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels of Awareness of Honor/Shame in Cross-Cultural Ministry.

A year has passed since the article has been published. So now it is freely available outside of the EMQ online environment. (CLICK HERE to download 3,000-word article.) The article is still available at EMQ’s website, of course.

Levels of awareness of honor-shame chartThe article is based on a diagram-chart of the same title which is Addendum 2 in The Global Gospel. The article examines five levels of awareness of honor-shame:

  • H/S-1: Unawareness
  • H/S-2: Ethical
  • H/S-3: Functional
  • H/S-4: Evangelical
  • H/S-5: Teleological

“H/S-1 to H/S-5”
—in the forms of both the article and the diagram/chart—are intended to help Christian leaders 1) examine default attitudes about honor/shame relative to the Bible, and 2) consider alternative beliefs and practices in the light of the Bible’s negative and positive! renderings of honor/shame dynamics.

Quick video: Challenge and riposte


Here is a quick description of the honor-shame dynamic called the “challenge and riposte”.

“Riposte” is a term used in the sport of fencing, meaning “a quick return thrust following a parry.” Socially it means, “a quick clever reply to an insult or criticism.” There are four steps to this protocol or social code of challenge and riposte—or “push-and-shove.” These four steps are:

  1. Claim of worth or value
  2. Challenge to that claim or refusal to acknowledge the claim
  3. Riposte or defense of the claim
  4. Public verdict of success awarded to either claimant or challenger[1]

There are numerous examples of honor competition in the Bible. The honor competition between Jesus and the Jewish religious leaders in the Gospels frequently follows the four-step sequence referred to above. Learn about this honor-shame dynamic—“challenge and riposte”—in the next in our series of quick videos about honor and shame. Click here to watch the video on Vimeo.

Learn more—free chapter from The Global Gospel on the honor-shame dynamic of “challenge and riposte”

Free resource1The free resource available with this post is an excerpt from The Global Gospel—Chapter 2.4: Honor/Shame Dynamic #4: Challenge and Riposte. The chapter is eight pages long. NOTE: This chapter helps you understand the seemingly unending cycle of conflict and violence in some honor/shame societies. The honor-shame dynamics of the love of honor, the image of limited good, and challenge and riposte—work together in a dark synergy to support a greater propensity for violence.

Enjoy the next quick video: “Challenge and Riposte.

1. Jerome Neyrey: Honor and Shame in the Gospel of Matthew (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), 20.

Quick video: the “image of limited good”

Image of limited good vertical win-loseHere is a quick description of the honor-shame dynamic called the “image of limited good”. The image of limited good is “the belief that everything in the social, economic, natural universe … everything desired in life: land, wealth, respect and status, power and influence … exist in finite quantity and are in short supply”.[1] If you gain, I lose … it’s a “zero-sum game.”

The example given in the video is from 1 Samuel 18:6–9. After David’s victory over Goliath, Israel’s women celebrated and honored David above Saul. Did Saul celebrate with the people over their great victory? No!

Instead of Saul rejoicing over Israel’s dramatic victory, Saul lamented (1 Sam 18:8); he considered it a mortal threat that David was honored above himself. Here’s why: There was only so much honor to go around (honor is a “limited good”)—so as David’s honor status increased among the people, Saul’s own honor went down.

Saul’s extreme envy reflected the default values of his culture—a win-lose mindset—the “image of limited good”.

Learn more about the “image of limited good”, and discover how Christ overturns “limited good”—in the next in our series of quick videos about honor and shame. Click here to watch the video on Vimeo.

Learn more—free chapter from The Global Gospel on the “image of limited good”

Free resource1The free resource available with this post is an excerpt from The Global Gospel—Chapter 2.3: Honor/Shame Dynamic #3: The Image of Limited Good. The chapter is five pages long. Enjoy the next quick video: “The Image of Limited Good

1. Jerome Neyrey: Honor and Shame in the Gospel of Matthew (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), 18.

Quick video: The love of honor

Aristotle said, “… honor is clearly the greatest of external goods … it is honor above all else which great men claim and deserve”. He was pointing to the love of honor as a default attitude and mindset in ancient Greek culture

Love of honor heartLove of honor is the desire for acceptance and esteem in one’s social group. To varying degrees, love of honor is common among all peoples. But it is especially pronounced in many honor-shame cultures.

This honor-shame dynamic—love of honor—was carried forth from Greek culture into the Roman Empire into which Jesus was born, and is plainly observable in Scripture. The ancient Hebrews also displayed the love of honor.

Learn about this honor-shame dynamic, “love of honor”, in the next installment of our series of quick videos about honor and shame. Click here to watch the video on Vimeo.

Learn more—free chapter from The Global Gospel on the “love of honor”

Free resource1The free resource available with this post is an excerpt from The Global Gospel—Chapter 2.1: Honor/Shame Dynamic #1: Love of Honor.  The chapter examines how this dynamic—love of honor—is prominently represented in the Bible. The chapter is ten pages long.

Enjoy the next video: “Quick intro: The love of honor”

New series of short videos on honor and shame

Some quick videos on honor-shame

During my last week in New Zealand (I was there March 4–20), my host Russell Thorp of GC3 said, “Let’s do some quick videos about honor and shame.”

So Russell and I set up my iPhone on a tripod with a good external microphone and shot a few videos at his house near Auckland.

Russell’s idea was to create some quick videos—and then ultimately connect these to the longer videos of my teaching sessions on honor and shame. (These longer videos are currently in production in New Zealand.)

Well, these quick videos that Russell and I did turned out pretty good. And so I thought, Why not also use them on my blog?

So I’m producing a series of quick videos about honor and shame (on Vimeo). These videos will be three to five minutes in length. Each quick video includes a few discussion points at the end. My plan is to introduce a short video in this series about every other day, and announce each one on my blog.

Free resource related to the video—to learn more

Free resource1Each post in this series will include one free written resource—an article I have written or a chapter from The Global Gospel. The free resource for this post is a chapter excerpt from my book: Chapter 1.3: “Why Our Blind Spot about Honor and Shame?”

Enjoy the first video: “Quick intro: Honor-shame in the Bible”

Other free honor-shame resources are available at my Resources page,
and many more are available from our friends at

“Honor, Shame and the Gospel”—six-week class at Scottsdale Bible Church starts January 24th

sbclogoI am so grateful for my home church, Scottsdale Bible, which has provided me the opportunity to teach a class based on my book, The Global Gospel. The class will incorporate lecture with PowerPoint, handouts, and ample discussion. It will be held six successive Sundays, January 24 to February 28, 11:00 a.m., at the Shea Campus. The classroom is A7. Copies of The Global Gospel are available at the Scottsdale Bible book store/café.

Honor, Shame, and the Gospel

Honor shame and the gospelOverview: How does the gospel speak to a violent world and the refugee crisis? Are there facets of the gospel that especially resonate with Muslims as well as millennials? In this interactive class with the author of The Global Gospel, you’ll discover how understanding the Bible’s own honor/shame dynamics offers fresh answers and powerful hope through the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Class 1: Biblical Honor for a World of Shame: We’ll compare basic Majority World values of honor/shame to Western values of innocence/guilt. We’ll show why guilt is more likely to lead to healing behavior—whereas shame is more likely to lead to hurtful behavior. Could it be that a gospel that focuses on sin and guilt is the “on-ramp” to a gospel that also addresses sin and shame?

Class 2: The Gospel of Honor-Status Reversal: We’ll discover a motif in Scripture—honor-status reversal—hidden in plain sight from Genesis to Revelation. We’ll go through the The Father’s Love Booklet (each attendee gets a copy). We’ll learn how to share the gospel in the “language of honor and shame”. It’s a new, easy way to share Christ with people from Majority World cultures.

Class 3: The Gospel of Purity: Christians know they are forgiven. But for many, a sense of shame persists. How does the Bible’s “purity language” speak to us through the gospel to forgive, cleanse and restore? How does the gospel speak to Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist peoples with their ritual purity practices? This is good news here and now—and across cultures.

Class 4: The Gospel of the Kingdom for a Violent World: Honor-based violence makes the news daily. Yet the church is weak in its understanding and response. Discover how the dark side of honor and shame fuels violence. Examine how Christ’s honor-sharing “gospel of the kingdom” offers a powerful cure for violence—a living hope and powerful message for the world today.

Class 5: The Gospel that Speaks to Postmodernism and Pluralism: How can our theology emphasize “sola Scriptura” (the sole authority of Scripture)—while also speaking to our postmodern, pluralistic world? We will examine three ways: 1) Acknowledging blind spots in Western theology; 2) addressing the sinful pathology of shame; and 3) magnifying the multicultural essence of the gospel.

Class 6: The Story of Joseph as Gospel Motif: Can the story of Joseph (Gen 37–50) help us make sense of the whole Bible? We’ll explore the motif of honor-status reversal in this amazing drama. In so doing, we’ll see God’s sovereignty over evil, his purpose to bless all peoples through his honorific family, and his persistent reversal of honor status—all pointing to the glorious gospel.

Questions? Please write to me at

New resources to examine your level of awareness of honor/shame in cross-cultural ministry

Levels of awareness of honor-shame diagram.fw
“H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels of Awareness of Honor/Shame 
in Cross-Cultural Ministry”. This diagram was developed as I was writing The Global Gospel. It reflects my own long journey to understand the subject of honor/shame dynamics in the Bible—and what this means for cross-cultural ministry . After EMQ approved my submission for an article about this, Dr. Scott Moreau offered good suggestions to improve the diagram. I am grateful for his advice.
Two resources are available to you: 1) an article in EMQ, and 2) a downloadable PDF of the diagram-chart

“H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels of Awareness of Honor/Shame 
in Cross-Cultural Ministry” describes a learning journey to help you understand honor/shame dynamics in the Bible—and how this relates to your work of blessing all the peoples of the earth through the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Here’s an overview of “H/S-1 to H/S-5”:
  • H/S-1: Unawareness. At this level the key words are “blind spot”.  You have little to no awareness 
of honor/shame dynamics; it’s both a cultural and theological
 blind spot.
  • H/S-2: Ethical. At this level the key words are “inferior values”. You become aware of honor and shame in the culture—but only the unethical or dark side of honor/shame.
  • H/S-3: Functional. At this level the key words are “Bible cultures”. You become aware of honor/shame as the pivotal cultural value of Bible societies. You gain a functional tool for better Scripture interpretation, better hermeneutics. Understanding honor/shame helps to minimize the Western bias for interpreting Scripture
. Plus you gain a tool to better understand Majority World cultures.
  • H/S-4: Evangelical. At this level the key words are “gospel message”.  You now understand that honor/shame dynamics are central to the meaning 
and proclamation of the gospel of Christ
  • H/S-5: Teleological. At this level the key words are “glorious kingdom”. You see honor/shame dynamics as central to the Bible’s narrative of a doxological destiny for Christ and for believers from among all the peoples of the earth.

“H/S-1 to H/S-5” is available in two forms—an article in EMQ and the downloadable diagram/chart. This resource is designed to help you: 1) bring to the surface default attitudes about honor/shame relative to the Bible and the culture in which you serve, and 2) consider adjusting your beliefs and practices in the light of the Bible’s negative and positive renderings of honor/shame dynamics.

EMQ-logoTHE ARTICLE: H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels ofLevels of awareness of honor-shame chart Awareness of Honor/Shame in Cross-Cultural Ministry.” This 3,000-word article was published in Evangelical Missions Quarterly (EMQ), April 2015. The article is available by logging in at EMQonline. The article is available only to subscribers. (After April 2016, the article will be downloadable from this page.) The article is written in an academic style—and is based on Addendum 2 in The Global Gospel

THE DIAGRAM-CHART: “H/S-1 to H/S-5: Levels of Awareness of Honor/Shame in Cross-Cultural Ministry.” Published as Addendum 2 in The Global Gospel—now available as a free PDF by clicking here.

Presenting the Gospel in Honor-Shame Cultures

Presenting the gospel in honor-shame cultures.fwThe interview (below) was published in the October 2015 issue of Anthology, a publication of Missio Nexus. Marv Newell, Sr. Vice President of Missio Nexus, has been an endorser and advocate for my book, The Global Gospel. Marv’s enthusiastic support is what led to this interview, which is posted here with permission. Click here for the PDF. Thank you, Marv! To God be the glory!  –Werner Mischke

Mission Nexus articleWhat do you mean by a culture that is embedded in “honor and shame?” Just how do you define and describe these terms?

In Jerome Neyrey’ s book, Honor and Shame in the Gospel of Matthew, he describes honor as “the worth or value of persons, both in their eyes and in the eyes of their village, neighborhood or society”. He says the “critical item is the public nature of respect and reputation.”[1]  Brené Brown says this about shame: It is “the intensely painful feeling or experience of believing that we are flawed and therefore unworthy of love and belonging. … It’s the fear disconnection.”[2]

What ties these two definitions together is the social, relational or public aspect of the dynamics. Western philosopher René Descartes coined the phrase, I think, therefore I am. And one African theologian modified it to describe people in honor-shame cultures this way: I am because we are, and since we are, therefore I am.

This idea shows that in an honor-shame culture, people are really immersed and completely embedded in their community, and their sense of individuality is far less than how we perceive ourselves in the West.

What’s the difference between cultures that emphasize honor-shame and cultures more like ours that value guilt and innocence?

In guilt-innocence cultures I would say we are more law-oriented and individualistic. Kids grow up in the West with the phrase, What do you want to be when you grow up? Many of us have been raised to value individual dreaming and pursuit with minimal  regard for the opinion of the extended family or community. This is far less common in an honor-shame
culture. They are so embedded in their extended family and community.

Now, to be sure, the West is not completely individualistic and guilt-oriented—neither is the Majority World is completely group-and-shame-oriented. But without a doubt, in guilt-innocence cultures, we are a lot more individualistic, whereas people in honor-shame cultures are more collectivistic. Sometimes anthropologists call group-oriented cultures dyadistic—meaning the individual is embedded in the group.

Consequently, laws are not as important as relationships in honor-shame cultures. In the West, our society is ruled by laws. Honor shame-cultures do have laws, but there is a greater emphasis on relationships and how one is perceived in their community.

What are some of the blind spots that we in the West have toward cultures that have honor-shame as their pivotal cultural value?

When Westerners observe honor-shame values at work in other cultures, we normally see them as unethical. In other words, we only see the dark side of honor-shame. Now, to be clear, there is a dark side. We have become familiar with the honor killings that have taken place in some of our own cities in the West as people from south Asia and the Middle East have come to North America. And when someone from an honor-shame culture shames their family, sometimes violence and bloodshed is the result.

So if we are aware of honor and shame, it is almost always the dark and evil aspect that we
notice. The Bible plainly describes the source and the results of that evil. There is, however, a bright and glorious side to honor and shame throughout the Scriptures, which I examine extensively in my book.

As Christians we don’t see the honor-shame dynamics in our own Bibles. We don’t realize that there are twice as many occurrences in the Bible of the word shame and its derivatives than there are to the word guilt and its derivatives.

When we read the Bible we’re not alert to the myriad honor-shame dynamics in Scripture
because Westerners do not normally use that language—and more importantly, Western
theology has a blind spot about honor and shame. We don’t live with this awareness of honor and shame nearly to the degree that the authors of Scripture did.

Give us some biblical examples of honor and shame that you advocate permeates the Scriptures.

I’ll mention just three of the ten honor-shame dynamics we describe in the book. The first
dynamic is called love of honor. And that’s simply the recognition that people in the Ancient Near East had as a primary motivation—the pursuit of honor and glory. Jerome Neyrey quotes Aristotle who says: “Honor is clearly the greatest of external goods. It is honor above all else that that great men claim and deserve.”

The Roman Empire was saturated with values of honor and glory, so this is the social context and emotional environment in which the New Testament was written. So we see this love of honor, and correspondingly the fear of shame, to be something that goes from Genesis to Revelation.

A second honor-shame dynamic is purity. We see purity codes in the book of Leviticus, for
example—who is included and who is excluded. As someone moves toward holiness, they gain honor. As someone moves toward being common or unclean or even an abomination, they move toward exclusion and shame. [See article: “The Gospel of Purity”.]

If you want to see an example of how shame equates with uncleanness, look at Ezekiel 16.
You’ll see that God’s unfaithful bride is described in crude shameful terms. Plus, the dynamic of purity is part of the atonement in Leviticus and Hebrews. So purity is a key honor-shame dynamic in Scripture which beautifully relates to the gospel.

There is also the dynamic of what I call honor-status reversal”. And by that, we mean
someone’s family, community, or people whose status is being reversed from shame to honor or from honor down to shame.

Consider the great stories of the Bible: Adam and Eve, Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the
Exodus, Job, David—all are examples of honor-status reversal. Whether in the books of Moses, the historical books, the prophetic books, many of the Gospel stories and parables, or in the epistles, we see this dynamic of honor-status reversal appearing again and again. The climactic example is the story of Jesus Christ. Look at Philippians 2:5–11. There it is—honor-status reversal! That’s why I call this honor-shame dynamic a motif—we see it repeatedly in the Scriptures.

What are examples of a gospel presentation in which guilt-innocence and honor-shame are the focal messages?

I think most of us are familiar with the gospel presentation called The Four Spiritual Laws, which was developed decades ago by Campus Crusade for Christ. God has used this presentation mightily. I’ve met numbers of people who have said, “Hey, that’s how I got saved.” We don’t want to disesteem what God has done in using this great resource to introduce people to Christ. However, the very name of this gospel presentation—The Four Spiritual Laws—reflects a legal framework for the gospel. But it needs to be pointed out that we don’t have to articulate the gospel using laws. We can also articulate the gospel using stories. We don’t have to rely exclusively on propositional truth.

The Four Spiritual Laws is geared toward individuals. It talks about you as an individual and how you must make a faith commitment to Jesus Christ. Furthermore it talks about forgiveness of sins. In other words, all of us have behaved badly and we have committed sins for which we need forgiveness.

This may be distinguished from needing forgiveness—not just from our sinful behavior—but also from our sinful being. Behavior is more about guilt whereas our being is more about shame. It is not just our behavior—but also our being—which dishonors God. You can see this emphasis on sin as the dishonoring of God in Romans 1:23, Romans 2:23 and Romans 3:23.

So a Western gospel presentation like The Four Spiritual Laws focuses on a legal framework.  And we certainly affirm that the gospel can be articulated using a legal framework that focuses on forgiveness for sin as guilt and based upon laws of Scripture, propositional truth.

The Father’s Love Gospel Booklet, the gospel in the language of honor and shameIn contrast, consider a gospel presentation called The Father’s Love Booklet which we
developed a couple of years ago. It’s the prodigal son story in words and pictures. It shows how the prodigal son’s descent into sin and shame alienated him from his father. Then his father—in his desire to have his son reconciled back to his family—went out and met this prodigal as he came back from his shameful exploits. The father covered his son’s shame and restored his son’s honor. He covered him with his favorite robe. He gave him a ring signifying his honored place in the family and his authority. He gave him sandals for his feet. With outrageous love, the father restored the honor of his prodigal son.

And then the booklet has a bridge to the gospel of Christ using verses from Scripture like, “He who believes shall not be put to shame” in Romans 10. We show how the work of Christ on the cross demonstrates that God is like a father willing to suffer shame for us that we may be reconciled.

In your book you say, “Shame is more likely to lead to hurtful behavior whereas guilt is more likely to lead to healing behavior. The pathology of shame for individuals can be terrible and impact generations, but when that pathology of shame impacts whole societies and nations it becomes truly horrendous.” What are some examples you’ve seen of how that is played out?

This is an important distinction between guilt and shame. Social science research shows that guilt is more likely to lead to healing behavior because people are motivated to apologize for what they have done. Consider the phrase, I did that horrible thing. For guilt-prone people the emphasis is on the words did and thing—the emphasis is on behavior.[3]

However, with shame-prone people, the emphasis is not on the bad thing I did—but on the bad person I am. So the phrase reads with an emphasis on “I”: “I did that horrible thing.” The research shows that whereas guilt is more likely to lead to healing behavior, shame is more likely to lead to hurtful behavior. And when this is played out on the broad stage of human history, we see horrendous things happen.

For example, in the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany was deeply excluded and shamed by the international community. They had to pay back billions in reparations. It was impossible. Consequently, Germany was in a place of profound economic dysfunction and humiliation. My mother had been a teenager in Germany during World War Two. She told me that after the First World War, “We couldn’t even buy a loaf of bread.”

Hitler rose in power because he tapped into that German humiliation and shame. He also found a scapegoat—which of course was the Jews or other non-Aryan people. Hitler rebuilt their military and satisfied the longing of the nation to have their honor restored. The nationalist desire to overcome shame led to evil and violence on a monumental scale.

Another prominent example in the last century and continuing into current events has been the rise of Islamic terrorism, which I believe is large-scale honor competition. The Arab Muslim world has been shamed by the Western world in many different respects—at least that’s how they perceive it—and so their honor must be vindicated.

I was reading about the Al Qaeda representative in Yemen who took responsibility for the
Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris. He plainly stated that this attack was a vindication to restore honor. He said they denounce the unbelievers who “insulted the chosen Prophets of Allah” and caused Muslims to “awake and roar out of rage.” The “heroes,” the killers in Paris, were then “assigned” to attack the Charlie Hebdo office in revenge.

“Congratulations to you, O Ummah of Islam, for this vengeance that has soothed our chests. Congratulations to you for these brave men who blew off the dust of disgrace and lit the torch of glory in the darkness of defeat and agony.”

We must understand that honor-shame dynamics are at the very root of what is happening in this clash between East and West—between religious fundamentalism, Islamic extremism, and our own Western culture—or we will not address it effectively. We’ve got to understand the root causes. We’ve got to realize that shame leads to hurtful, sinful behavior for individuals, families, societies, even nations. Christian leaders and missionaries must learn to teach and preach a gospel which speaks to honor-based violence.

You conclude that the gospel is already contextualized for honor-shame cultures. Would you explain that?

I agree with my friend Jackson Wu from China: “The gospel is already contextualized for honor-shame cultures.” This comes from our observations of honor-shame dynamics in the Scriptures that plainly overlap with verses concerning the gospel, salvation, Christ’s atonement, the resurrection, and what it means to follow Jesus.

This is exciting because when we think about the unreached and unengaged peoples of the world, when we think about the multitudes who have yet to receive the blessing of Christ—so many of them are from honor-shame cultures.

We can build on the legal framework of the gospel by including the honor-shame dynamics that are woven into the Scriptures. We can connect with the thought forms and honor-shame motivations of the people who have yet to receive the blessing of the gospel. We can discover that for many in the Majority World, their honor-shame values overlap with the pivotal cultural value of honor and shame in Bible societies—and that this overlap can be used to powerfully communicate the gospel.

This gives us fresh hope as we continue our work in the world Christian community to bless all the peoples of the earth and make disciples of all nations.

1. Jerome H. Neyrey, Honor and Shame in the Gospel of Matthew (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), 15.

2. Brené Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead (New York: Gotham, 2012), 69.

3. See June Tangney and Ronda Dearing, Shame and Guilt (New York: Guilford Press, 2002).

A great sermon on honor and shame

The glorious gospel sermon

My friend Sam Winfield (pseudonym) recently preached a sermon on honor and shame for the missions conference of a church in northern Indiana.

I love this sermon. It is some of the finest preaching I have heard concerning honor and shame in Scripture, how this relates to the gospel, and what it means for Christian world missions.

The title of Sam Winfield’s sermon is “The Glorious Gospel”.

Sam preaches on two of the ten key honor/shame dynamics which I describe in my book The Global Gospel. These two dynamics described in his sermon are 1) limited good, and 2) purity.

Sam shows how these dynamics overlap with the gospel of Jesus Christ. Plus, he gives great insight as to why the gospel is more glorious than we may have previously known.

Sam speaks from many years of experience serving in North Africa and Europe as a missionary. You will like his clear teaching from God’s Word, combined with stories, spiritual passion, and practical application.

Thank you, Sam, for granting permission to put this on my blog.

Review of The Global Gospel in IBMR

IBMR page

I am grateful for this review of my book The Global Gospel in the International Bulletin of Missionary Research.

The review was written by Simon Chan, Earnest Lau Professor of Systematic Theology at Trinity Theological College, Singapore.

Dr. Chan’s review of The Global Gospel is actually the second part of a two-book review. You can access the book review here.